GLASS TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF GLASS & SILICATE TECHNOLOGY

AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA

INTRODUCTION:

The Diploma curriculum of the Glass Technology programme was reviewed to fit into the current undergraduate curriculum of the undergraduate programme. This is also to ensure that graduates of the Diploma programme who wish to pursue higher academic studies in the field of Glass technology are well groomed for that purpose.

 

Below is a summary of major changes in the reviewed Diploma in glass technology programme:

 

1.      Course Code: GTDP adopted for all courses.

 

2.      Requirement for Graduation: Total number of credits retained as in the old curriculum

 

 

3.      New Courses Introduced:

Diploma 1

First Semester

GTDP 115 – Introduction to Sintering Technology

GTDP 125 – Introduction to Glass Packaging

GTDP 117 – Scientific Glass Technology I

Second Semester

GTDP 120 – Scientific Glass Technology II

GTDP 124 – Introduction to Furnace Technology

 

Diploma 11

First Semester

GTDP 229 - Introduction to Instrumentation and Process Control

       GTDP 221 – Scientific Glass Technology III

       GTDP 223 – Introduction to Primary Sensors for Silicate Industry

       GTDP 225 – Cold Glassworking (glass lamination, glass polishing, glass cutting, etc.)

       GTDP 227 – Glass Casting and Slumping

 

Second Semester

       GTDP 228 – Coloration in Glass

       GTDP 222 – Scientific Glass Technology IV

       GTDP 226 – Introduction to Industrial Hallow ware Manufacturing Techniques

       GTDP 224 – Introduction to Industrial Flat Glass Manufacturing Process

 

 

 

4.   Old courses dropped to give space to the Science founded courses in the new curriculum:

Diploma 1

First Semester

IDDP 115 – Introduction to Glass Design

IDDP 125 – General Drawing

IDDP 117 – Theory of Studio Glassmaking

 

Second Semester

IDDP 120 – Texture Surface Design

IDDP 124 – Essentials of Furnace Operations

 

Diploma 11

First Semester

IDDP 229 - Glass Slumping Techniques

IDDP 221 – Free blowing Techniques I

IDDP 223 – Glass Tableware Design

IDDP 225 – Laminated Glassmaking Techniques

 

Second Semester

IDDP – 228 Flame Working

IDDP 222 – Free Blowing Techniques II

IDDP 226 – Pressed Wares

IDDP 224 – Decorating Glassware

IDDP 230 – Glass Mosaic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diploma 1 First Semester

Course Code

Title

Contact Hour Per Week

Credit Unit (CU)

GTDP 111

Introduction to Glass Technology

2

2

GTDP 115

Introduction to Sintering Technology

2

2

GTDP 113

Introduction to Glass Making Raw Materials

2

2

GTDP 119

Chemistry of Glass I

2

2

GTDP 121

Physics of Glass I

2

2

GTDP 127

History of Glass

2

2

GTDP 125

Introduction to Glass Packaging

2

2

GTDP 129

Geology of Glass

2

2

GTDP 117

Flame Working

2

2

GTDP 123

Basic Mathematics for material Scientist

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diploma 1 Second Semester

Course Code

Title

Contact Hours Per Week

Credit Unit

GTDP 112

Introduction to Glass Making Techniques

2

2

GTDP 114

Glass Batch Preparation

2

2

GTDP 116

Glass Melting Process

2

2

GTDP 118

Glass Welding

2

2

GTDP 120

Chemistry of Glasses II

2

2

GTDP 122

Physics of Glasses II

2

2

GTDP 124

Introduction to Furnace Technology

2

2

GTDP 126

Statistics for Material Scientists

2

2

GTDP 128

Glass Raw Material Analysis II

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diploma 11 First Semester

Course Code

Title

Contact Hours Per Week

Credit Unit (CU)

GTDP 229

Introduction to Instrumentation and Process Control

2

2

GTDP 221

Laboratory Glass Blowing

2

2

GTDP 223

Introduction to Primary Sensors for Silicate Industry

2

2

GTDP 225

Cold Glass Working

2

2

GTDP 227

Glass Casting and Slumping

2

2

GTDP 217

Introduction to Properties & Application of Glass I

2

2

GTDP 219

Technical Drawing I

2

2

GTDP 200

Special Projects

2

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diploma 11 Second Semester

Course Code

Title

Contact Hours Per Week

Credit Unit (CU)

GTDP 218

Properties and Applications of Glass II

2

2

GTDP 228

Coloration in Glass

2

2

GTDP 222

Scientific Glass Blowing

2

2

GTDP 220

Technical Drawing II

2

2

GTDP 226

Introduction to Glass Forming Techniques

2

2

GTDP 224

Introduction to Glass Manufacturing processes

2

2

GTDP 230

Glass Raw Materials Analysis II

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GTDP 111 Introduction to Glass Technology (CR 1 Credits)

Basic understanding of Glass Technology, glass production: melting, forming, viscosity, annealing - glass properties: Mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical. Commercial glass grinding and polishing; process control; toxicity and personal safety in glass manufacture.

 

GTDP 112 Glassmaking Techniques (CR 1 Credits)

Main ingredients for making glass: silica sand, sodium carbonate, lime, other additives: lead, boron, lanthanum oxide, iron, colour additives. Float glass manufacture techniques: melting & refining, the float bath coating, annealing, inspecting and coating. Glass bottles and Containers: press and blow method, blow and blow method. Making drinking glasses and light bulbs, traditional glassblowing.

 

GTDP 113 Introduction to Glassmaking Raw Materials (CR 1 Credits)

Raw materials for introducing glass formers intermediate oxides and stabilizers or fluxing agents; Auxiliary raw materials – colorants, decolourisers, opacifiers, cullet, fining and accelerating agents. Raw material storage systems: major raw material storage, minor raw material storage and the chemical additives, Quality control in batch house glass raw materials, the principle of First-In- First-Out-In the management of batch house raw materials, movement of batch house raw materials to the furnace dog house.

 

GTDP 114 Glass Batch Preparation Processes (CR 2 credits)

Batch Materials Handling and Preparation: Intake and storage of raw Materials; Weighing and Mixing;Conveying of Batch to Dog House. Reaction occurring during glass preparation, melting phase, firing phase, Homogenizing phase, heat conditioning phase, defects in glass, phase equilibrium identification and interpretation of stones and cords in glass.

 

GTDP 115 Introduction to Sintering Technology (CR 2 credits)

Sintering technology basics; Sintering technology applications; the future of sintering.Manufacturing process metal injection moulding technology (MIM). Spark Plasma Sintering process (SPS); process ; applications. Part characteristic; benefit; Design, crystal growth systems, high temperature vacuum furnaces.Pure metals and alloys.Premixed and customized compounds.Use of mechanical and hydraulic presses.Degree of strength, resistance and dimensional accuracy achieved by hardening in the sintering heat.Finishing of the parts and component.

 

GTDP 117 Flame Working (CR 2credits)

Definition of glass. Types of glasses, branches of Glass Technology. Introduction to Scientific Glass Technology. Safety in Scientific Glass Technology. Flame, types of flame and flame structure. Production of glass blowing flames.

 

GTDP 118 Glass Welding (CR 2 credits)

Definition of glass welding; relationship with other scientific glass technology titles. The ideal glass welding workshop. List of tools and equipment . Glass welding raw materials. Basic operations. Gauges, rulers, tapes, e.t.c. and basic maintenance practice.

 

GTDP 119 Chemistry of Glasses I (2 Credits)

Define chemistry, consider the different branches of chemistry. Define matter; atom, proton, neutron and electron with basic calculations. Discuss electronic configuration; principal energy levels of an atom, the electronic configurations of the first 30 elements of the periodic table. Transition elements and glass colouration. Chemical formulae; empirical formula, molecular formula and structural formula. Homo and hetero chemical bonding; chemistry of minerals. Metestable  phases and phase diagrams.  

 

GTDP 120 Chemistry of Glasses II (2 credits)

Types of chemical reactions; redox, neutralization, precipitation, decomposition, synthesis, displacement, substitution, additional, elimination, combustion, polymerization, cracking, dehydration, estrification, e.t.c. Balancing chemical equations; methods of balancing chemical equations, procedures for balancing chemical equations, showing states of matter of the reactants and products, e.t.c. Colour in Glass Technology; state of valency, influence of salvation, influence of adsorption and the influence of temperature. Glass Arts and colouration.Examples of colourants, dispersion of metals, staining and opal divitrification clouration.Primary, secondary and tertiary colours.

 

GTDP 121 Physics of Glasses I (2credits)

Motion units and Dimensions, Fundamentals and Derived quantities and units, Scalars and Vectors. Molecular Theory of matter. Motion in a straight line. Motion under gravity. Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM).Force, Centre of gravity and Equilibrium. Friction in solids and liquids. Linear momentum, Simple machines.

 

GTDP 122 Physics of Glasses II (2credits)

Mechanical energy, Elastic properties of solids. Measurement of temperature. Transfere of heat and Heat capacities. Latent Heat and Evaporation. Expansion of gases. Reflection of light, Reflection at curved (spherical) mirrors. Refraction of light, Refraction at curved surfaces (Lenses). Application of light waves. Dispersion of light and colours.   

 

GTDP 123 Basic Mathematics for Material Scientists (CR 2 credits)

Natural numbers, integers, brackets in additions and  substractions, multiplications and divisions.Basic laws of cummulativity, associativity, distributivity. Factors, prime numbers, prime factorization, HCM, LCM, types of fractions; proper, improper and mixed fraction, dividing, equivalent, adding and substracting fractions. Powers and indices. Rules of indices. Algebriac expressions, rules of algebra; factorization of algebraic equations. Trigonometry-convert angle measured in degrees, minutes and seconds into decimal degrees, convert degrees into radians and verse varsa, use a calculator to determine the values of trigonometric ratios for any acute angle and verify trigonometric identies.

 

GTDP 124 Introduction to Furnaces Technology (CR 2 credits)

General description of glassmelting furnaces: Periodic, day, tank and pot furnace. Continuous regenerative and recuperative tank furnace. Melting and working end, regenerative chamber throats, port forehearth continuous unit melters. Considerations in furnace designs and construction. Set project on industrial glass furnace in Nigeria. Furnaces for container g regenerative and recuperative.The tank furnaces.Forming machines and mould.

GTDP 125 Introduction to Glass Packaging (CR 1 credits)

The place of glass in packaging. How bottles are made. Dimensions, tolerance, sand quality control; Physical and chemical properties of bottles; Choosing or designing glass containers. Planning and operation of bottling plants; Preparing bottles for filling; Filling, sealing, processing, labeling. Packaging, storage and transport; Packaging problems and how to avoid them; Glass containers and the environment.Packaging in glass - past, present and the future.

 

 

GTDP 126 Statistics for Material Scientist (CR 2 credits)

Distinguishing between discrete and continous data. Construct frequency and relative frequency tables for grouped and ungrouped data. Determine class boundaries, class intervals and central values for disctrete and continous data. Construct a histogram and a frequency polygon. Determine the mean, median and mode of grouped and ungrouped data. Determine the range, variance and standard deviation of discrete data. Measure the dispersion of data using the normal and standard normal curves. 

 

GTDP 127 History of Glass (CR 1 Credit)

The long history of glass as an artifact, the dramatic changes witnessed in its application with the introduction of science to glass making, variety of uses spanning all aspects of human life; the phenomenal growth since the early sixties, Discussion of the twin freedom enjoyed by materials in the glassy state as factors responsible for the growth vis: freedom from the restrictions of periodicity and stoichiometry. Glass as a tool for scientific exploration and a protector of man and his inventions. Glazing applications in building and automobiles for non-structural purposes. Structural uses in deep sea diving; glass fibre reinforcements. Highlights of strengthening methods: thermal toughening, chemical toughening and lamination with particular reference to bulletproof windows.

GTDP 128Glass Raw Material Analysis 1 (CR 1 Credit)

Sampling by conning and quartering. Beneficiation  and Sieve Analysis. Preparation of standard solution. Types of analysis; Destructive, Nondestructive, Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses.

Quality control and Expression of Analytical Results.

 

GTDP 129 Geology of Glass (CR 2 credits)

Introduction to the science of geology. Relationship of geology to other sciences, branches of geology. History and the scientific method in geology .Our planet earth and the universe, major divisions of the earth, evidences of a variable interior of the earth, crust, mountain roots, mantle and core.

 

GTDP 208 Colouration in Glasses (CR 2 credits)

Introduction Transition metal colours - effects of the liquid field, effects of glass composition on colour due to CO2 in oxide glasses. Factors affecting the equilibra of transition metal ions in glass. Effect of the composition, Redox reactions; Absorpsivity of oxide glasses in the ultraviolet.Colloidal colours. Absorption infrared. Decolourising commercial glasses. Colours of glasses produced by non-metallic elements: Sulphur, Selenium, Tellurium, Phosphorus and certain of their compounds. Fluorescence,  Thermoluminescence and solarisation of glass.

 

GTDP 217 Introduction to Properties & Application of Glass I (2 credit)

Definition of the term ‘Glasses’, The transformation range; The chemical nature of inorganic: glasses. Viscosity: Viscosity values; Analysis of some simple problems in viscous laminar flow - flow of glass over a horizontal plane; heat transfer from glass inside a cylindrical mould. Measurement of viscosity - high and low temperature methods, viscosity fixed points; Variation of viscosity with temperature - activation energy for viscous flow, the Fulcher equation; Flow properties in the transformation range - variation of viscosity with time, stress relation phenomena; Effect of glass composition, Surface tension.

 

GTDP 218 Properties & Application of Glass II (2 credits)

Thermal Expansion; Thermal expansion curve; Methods of measurement, Effect of glass composition. Thermal stresses in glassware. Methods of measurement. Effects of Composition; effects of surface flaws. Theoretical and Design Strength; High strength glass surfaces; factors responsible for surface damage; The strength of glassware, determination of service stress. Fracture analyses; Some aspect of the nature of inorganic glasses;

 

GTDP 219 Technical Drawing I (CR 2 credits)

Plane and solid geometry; Polygons, general methods of constructing polygons. Division of circles into twelve equal parts. Angle in a semi circle. Plane scale; Octagon in a square. General method for drawing any polygon e.g. pentagon, hexagon, heptagon e.t.c. Inscribing four equal circles in a square. Inscribing three equal circles in a triangle. Inscribing circle in any regular polygon. To draw a square and polygon on a given base. Loci problem; Ellipse, Helix, Cycloid, Epicycloid, Hypocycloid. Involute of a cycle. Parabola, hyperbola. Mechanism.

 

GTDP 220 Technical Drawing II (CR 2 credits)

Sections: To draw the true shape of the section of the truncated hexagonal prism, frustum of the cylinder. To draw the end elevation of the frustum of hexagonal prism, frustum of the cylinder. Developments: To draw the development of the square prism, truncated prism, frustum of the hexagonal prism, the cylinder, frustum of the cylinder, a pyramid and a cone. End elevations: To draw the end elevation and the true shape of the section of a frustum of a pyramid, the frustum of a cone. To draw the plane and the true shape of the section of a frustum of a cone. To draw the true shape of the vertical section of a cone.

 

GTDP 221 Laboratory Glass Blowing (CR 2 credits)

Definition of laboratory glass blowing. Basic operations; rotation of glass tubing in flame, pulling off pitz. Joints and joining tubes of the same diameters and different diameters, T-joins, Y-joins, e.t.c. Identifying different glasses by Test Scaling, blowing glass bulbs and boring holes or openings. T-joints, U-joints and Y-joints, rod seals, blind seals, capillary seals, blowing bulbs and spirals. Annealing; flame annealing and oven annealing.

 

GTDP 222 Scientific Glass Blowing (CR 2 credits)

Overview of flame working, glass welding and laboratory glass blowing. Basic repair and maintenance of glass ware. Detail study of glass welding equipment. Trouble shooting and maintenance. Specialized glass systems and research. Laboratory glass project.

 

 

GTDP 223 Introduction to Primary Sensors for Silicates Industry (CR 2credits)

Temperature measuring devices; thermocouple, radiation pyrometers, thermometers; gas liquid and resistance thermometers. Thermometers  pyrometric cones. Flow measurement; office plate, flow nozzle, venturi tube, flow laminar flow element, pilot tube. Variable area, turbine and magnetic flow meters pressure transmitter and stain gauges.

 

GTDP 225 Cold Glass Working (CR 2 credits)

Laminated glass making techniques; principles of glass lamination, properties of laminated glasses, production processes and uses.

 

GTDP 226 Introduction to Glass Forming Techniques (CR 2 credits)

Tools used for glass forming; blowpipes, pontil, tweezers, pincers, molds etc. Raw materials for glass making, annealing glass wares.

 

GTDP 227 Glass Casting and Slumping (CR 2 credits)

Definition of casting in general, of casting in glass Technology. Glass casting and Metallurgy, Casting and Ceramics, casting factory/shop. Casting materials; ware, secondary clay, Plaster of Paris (POP), Kaolin, Silica and separators. Methods and processes involved in casting Technology; Sketching, Modeling, Molding and shaping. Science and technology of the casting materials; silica, plaster of Paris, kaolin Secondary Clay, cullet and molten glass, casting and

 

GTDP 229 Introduction to Instrumentation and Process Control (CR 2 credits)

Instrumentation: Basic concept of instrument- idea of generalized measurement system, Functional units, Static and Dynamic characteristics of measuring device- accuracy, precision, error, hysteresis, resolution, threshold value, repeatability, etc., Calibration error and uncertainty, statistical analysis of data and error. PID diagram of process plant and Instrument specification. Transducers: Basic concept, classification and applications, Temperature measurement: Classification, mechanical temperature sensor- solid expansion liquid and vapour filled thermo electric thermocouples, Electric type-Resistance thermometer, thermistors, Optical/Radiation type, Pressure measurement: Mechanical type – Manometers, Elastic type Bourdon gauge/pressure spring etc. Basic concepts of control-systems, logic analysis of systems, process control-open and closed loop system, block diagram, Transient response, system linearisation, mathematical modeling of simple physical system transfer functions. Linear closed – loop system. Transient analysis of First Order, Second Order system.

 

GTDP 230 Glass Raw Material Analysis (CR 1 credit)

Introduction to assessment of analytical data, PH, complex reaction, solubility, separation techniques, titrimetry, gravimetry, electrochemical techniques. Analytical  spectrometry. Molecular Spectrometry.

Analysis of sand.

 

GTDP 224  Introduction to Industrial Glass Manufacturing Process (CR 2 credits)

Container glass manufacturing process; bottles and other hollowware glass articles forehearth and gob feeder, lynch blow and blow machine. Press moulds; paste moulds. Coming bulb machine (ribbonmachine) tolerance in bottle manufacturing. Production of glass tubing and reds; Dinner, vello, and Schuller processes.

Flat glass manufacturing processes; sheet glass Foucault method, Pittsburg process. PPG ring roller process, continuous casting process. Libby Owens continuous rolling, continuous horizontal rolling grinding and polishing operations.Patterned manufacturing processes. Float glass. Hand production processes.

Selection of materials for fibre glass manufacture. The processes involved in its manufacture. The use of glass and polymer fibres as flexible light guides. Fibre glass with particular reference E-glass as the most widely used reinforcement for plastics in today’s world. Glass fibre, textile fibre insulating glass fibre wool.

DIPLOMA CURRICULUM REVIEW COMMITTEE

 

S/NO.

NAME

DESIGNATION

SIGN

1.

DR. C.M. GONAH

CHAIRMAN

 

2.

DR. A.D. GARKIDA

MEMBER

 

3.

MR. E.M. ALEMAKA

MERMBER

 

4.

MR. Y. ABDULLAHI

SECRETARY